The primary objective of this application is to undertake effective actions aimed at environment protection through developing the assumptions for technology of a new product, with value in use, produced from waste CRT glass. The implementation of the study may reduce the quantity of this waste fraction in the nearest future to considerable extent. Promotion of results of this study should give a fresh impulse to its implementation.
The purpose of the examinations is developing a new product - glass tiles manufactured exclusively from waste raw material.
The research purpose of this project is developing such engineering process parameters to obtain a new product having physical and chemical parameters similar to ceramic tiles parameters. We shall use in the method of this project realization the experiences of our executive team gathered in selecting the conditions for glass material milling and controlling this process flow with the use of laser diffraction method. The examination of engineering process parameters shall be made in pilot-plant scale, on experimental line of the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Department of Decoration Agents. The qualitative examinations of developed product shall be performed with the use of methods provided by the European Standards.
THE TOTAL COST OF THE PROJECT IS: PLN 2 538 987, WHICH CONSTITUTES THE VALUE OF ELIGIBLE COSTS..
The project's consortium has been formed to be able to handle all tasks involved in the project and at the same time get available all expertise needed for the successful project execution. The consortium in this project brings together the resources of 2 participating organizations, including Polish research institution of the ceramic sector and a Norwegian partner with previous experience in product environmental impact assessment based on the whole Life Cycle Analysis.
Parties concluded the Partnership Agreement, which specifies (with respect to the Project) the relationship among the Parties, in particular concerning the organisation of the work between the Parties, the management of the Project and the rights and obligations of the Parties concerning, inter alia, liability, Access Rights and dispute resolution.
The Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials is a lasting and important part of the Polish research and development community that combines a high level of scientific research with an implementation of its achievements in the industrial practice.
The range of the Institute's research is wery wide and includes the total of technical sciences related to ceramics and glass. The global development of science and technology has influenced the scope of the Institute's activity, shaping the structure of its research facilities and the undertaken research projects. This has resulted, for example, in a dynamic development of studies in the area of bioceramics or nanoceramics.
Over years of co-operation, a strong bond has developed between the Polish industry of ceramics, glass products and building materials, and the scientific community of the Institute. Mutual trust and good results of co-operation make it possible to react promptly to the needs of industry with respect to the technology of material processing and manufacturing of modern products that satisfy market requirements. Tradition, modernity, scientific inquisitiveness and reliability in the execution of research and development projects underlie a good reputation and a recognizable trademark of the Institute and its staff.
Apart from the scientific and research work, the Institute undertakes industrial production of special, small-scale and unique products, filling recognized market niches. We find solutions to problems that are too difficult or unattractive for others.
Vestlandsforsking is an assignment-based research institute. The institute is organised as a foundation and was established on 6 March 1985. Sogn and Fjordane county municipality was the formal founder. The institute is located in Sogndal, by the Sognefjord in the western part of Norway. The institute has 30 employees and an annual turnover of approximately 27 million NOK.
Regional knowledge intersection
Together, Vestlandsforsking and Sogn and Fjordane University College constitute a collective specialist community, with approximately 200 academic posts. Researchers from the College also participate in projects carried out by Vestlandsforsking.
Vestlandsforsking is an international research institute with regional entrenchment. Our vision is the promotion of knowledge development and sharing.
Vestlandsforsking shall carry out critical and independent research. Transparency is a prerequisite for our knowledge development and sharing. High quality shall be a distinguishing characteristic of all of our activities.
Vestlandsforsking shall provide contributions of knowledge of a high quality which shall contribute to greater insight into and innovation and development of policy, administration and value creation. Vestlandsforsking shall participate at the forefront of national and international research, and be an active participant in development in Western Norway.
Project revenues finance the ordinary operation of Vestlandsforsking. Contributions in the form of basic subsidies shall be dedicated to academic development, project development and quality assurance. At the time of establishment in 1985, Sogn and Fjordane county municipality, the Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development, and 62 banks, companies, municipalities and organisations in the county provided 4 million NOK in founding capital.
Vestlandsforsking is headed by a board comprising seven members. Sogn and Fjordane county municipality elects the majority of these, while the Research Council of Norway elects one. The director is responsible for the daily management of the institute. The research areas are organised thematically and are headed by research directors and administrative group leaders.
Vestlandsforsking has competence in the academic fields of social studies, natural sciences, technology and the humanities.
Quality assurance is performed by way of academic supervision and control and through a separate internal quality management system for the execution of projects.
Phases of the project include:
1. Identification of physicochemical properties of CRT glass with respect to the screen and the cone glass.
2. Development of unit process parameters in production technology of CRT glass tiles.
3. Production in semi-technological scale of a series of CRT glass tiles.
4. Determination of CRT tile’s properties according to European Standard No. 14411:2009: Ceramic tiles-definitions, classification and marking properties.
5. Development of assumptions for CRT waste glass utilization in glass tiles production technology.
6. Dissemination activities.
THE DOCUMENTATION WILL SERVE AS A BASIS FOR PRESENTATION OF AN OFFER FOR STARTING THE PRODUCTION.
Our research activities: Work Package 2: Identification of physicochemical properties of CRT glass with respect to the screen and the cone glass.
Tests were carried out with material:
In the both cases the separate tested material was screen glass and cone glass.
The scope of tests included:
The Testing Laboratory of ICiMB possesses accreditation for carrying out this test from The Polish Centre for Accreditation certificate No. AB 115.
The guiding principles for IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) installation indicate the following contribution scopes of individual oxides in composition of kinescope glass.
The test results of the presented material show that the glass of the Norwegian and Polish screen contains additionally iron oxide Fe2O3, titanium oxide TiO2, zinc oxide ZnO, lead oxide PbO, trace amounts of copper oxide CuO, antimony oxide Sb2O3, in comparison with the IPPC guiding principles. Besides in glass of the Norwegian screen content of strontium oxide SrO exceeds by 2.38% values shown in the guiding principles. Additionally in the Polish screen lithium oxide Li2O and nickel oxide NiO are present.
Glass of the Norwegian and Polish cones contains additionally iron oxide Fe2O3, titanium oxide TiO2, zinc oxide ZnO, antimony oxide Sb2O3, trace amounts of copper oxide CuO, in comparison with the IPPC guiding principles. In the both samples content of strontium oxide SrO in increased comparing with the guiding principles. In the Norwegian cone it is bigger by 94%, in the Polish one – by 12%.
In the Polish cone a small amount of boron oxide B2O3 as well as trace amounts of nickel oxide NiO and cadmium oxide CdO are present.
Determination of Fusion Temperature:
In the table there are mean values of at least two measurement. The results suggest that the glass will behave similarly in the firing process.
Determination of natural radioactivity
The basis for the assessment of natural radioactivity of the sample are f1 and f2 indicators of the activity. Activity indicator f1 is a dimensionless parameter which determines the natural content of radioactive isotopes in the sample.
f1 =∑Sij/ai = SK/3000 +SRa/300 +STh/200
SK, SRa, STh– isotope concentration expressed in Bq/kg in the test sample ai– parameters determined experimentally for different isotopes. F2 determines the radium isotope content in the sample.
The required values of the above-mentioned indicators in construction products are given in the Regulation of the Council of Ministers dated January 2, 2007:
f1=1; f2 =200Bq/kg
maximum values: f1=1,2 , f2 =240 Bq/kg
The test results admit applying of the tested material as raw material for manufacturing of CRT glass tile, because the values f1 and f2 are lower than the maximum ones. Currently we are working on developing the glass tile's unit production technology parameters.
The physicochemical parameters of the glass tiles testing
The results of radioactivity testing of a glass cone and screen glass confirmed the possibility of the use of waste CRT glass as a raw material in the production of cladding materials. The physicochemical parameters of the glass tiles prepared on laboratory scale according to the developed technology are included in the table below.
The resulting parameters determine the application of CRT glass tiles as a material for indoor walls. Ongoing research include production of tiles on a semi-technical scale. The tiles are currently being tested for freeze resistance. The result of these studies will enable deciding on the possibility of their use as exterior cladding tiles.